Isolation and Loneliness: A new killer?

Isolation and Loneliness: A new killer?

I have discovered that annotations can be a real “process” in the writing experience.  Annotations are notes of explanations or comments added to text or diagrams.  Descriptive annotations in a bibliography also provide a thesis and summary of the book or article a reader might be interested in.

Furthermore, annotations can be as simple as highlighting text as notes that the reader wants to be able to refer back to at a later time.  They can be highlights that identify the argument of the book or article or in a Word document annotations can be inserted “comments” or “track changes”. Overall, there are many different types of annotations a reader and or writer can use to assist when reading a book, document or article for future references.

Annotation picExamples of different Annotations:

Only lists the contents:

McIvor, S. D. (1995). Aboriginal women’s rights as “existing rights.” Canadian Woman Studies/Les Cahiers de la Femme 2/3, 34-38.

This article discusses recent constitutional legislation as it affects the human rights of aboriginal women in Canada: the Constitution Act (1982), its amendment in 1983, and amendments to the Indian Act (1985). It also discusses the implications for aboriginal women of the Supreme Court of Canada’s interpretation of the Constitution Act in R. v. Sparrow (1991).

Identifies the argument:

McIvor, S. D. (1995). Aboriginal women’s rights as “existing rights.” Canadian Woman Studies/Les Cahiers de la Femme 2/3, 34-38.

This article seeks to define the extent of the civil and political rights returned to aboriginal women in the Constitution Act (1982), in its amendment in 1983, and in amendments to the Indian Act (1985).* This legislation reverses prior laws that denied Indian status to aboriginal women who married non-aboriginal men. On the basis of the Supreme Court of Canada’s interpretation of the Constitution Act in R. v. Sparrow (1991), McIvor argues that the Act recognizes fundamental human rights and existing aboriginal rights, granting to aboriginal women full participation in the aboriginal right to self-government.**

*research question

**method & main conclusions

 

My articles and annotations based on my upcoming essay: Society’s new found Isolation and Loneliness: Loneliness pic

1.     Bakan, J., & Blomley, N. (1992). Spacing Out: Towards a Critical Geography of Law. Osgoode Hall Law Journal, Volume 30,(3), Article 9. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1720&context=ohlj

Blomley and Bakan’s paper written in 1992, discusses the connections between space, law and power.  It produces links between studies in law and geography as well.  Their paper shows the divide between public and private spaces as well as goes on to demonstrate areas involving worker safety and on whether or not local officials should have authority where worker safety regulations apply.  The authors do a good job defining legal geography as well as showing case studies and analysis of legal geography.

2.     Braverman, I., Blomley, N., Delaney, D., & Kedar, A. (2014). The Expanding Spaces of Law: A Timely Legal Geography [Introduction]. Papers.ssrn.com. Retrieved 23 November 2014, from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2235164

Irus Braverman, Nicholas Blomley, David Delaney, and Alexandre (Sandy) Kedar start by stating the definition of legal geography and what legal geography involves.  Legal geography highlights that most aspects of law is either located, takes place, is in motion, or has some spatial frame of reference, law is always “worlded” in some way. Distinctively legal forms of meaning are projected onto every segment of the physical world.  The paper identifies three modes of legal geographical research, disciplinary work in law or in geography that is modeled on the conventional image of import and export. The second is interdisciplinary where scholars in the eponymous fields draw on the work of each other and seek to contribute to the development of a common project. The third mode moves beyond legal geography to trans-disciplinary, modes of scholarship.

The authors identify gaps and hurdles in existing approaches to legal geography as well as offer solutions.  They further develop the idea of legal geography into new spaces and make new connections with these spaces, war zones, the street, the workplace and various other spaces.

3.     Greig, A. (2013). All the lonely Facebook friends: Study shows social media makes us MORE lonely and unhappy and LESS sociable. Mail Online. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2419419/All-lonely-Facebook-friends-Study-shows-social-media-makes-MORE-lonely-unhappy-LESS-sociable.html

Alex Greig’s article does a good job highlighting and summarizing how a study conducted by Ethan Kross at the University of Michigan, shows how Facebook is creating social isolation among people instead of bringing people closer together. Greig further touches on how ‘We are living in an isolation that would have been unimaginable to our ancestors, and yet we have never been more accessible,’ wrote Stephen Marche in another related article.

4.     Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D., & Lin, N. et al. (2013). Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults. Plos ONE, 8(8), e69841. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069841

Kross et al. demonstrate how their research regarding Facebook use contributes to social isolation and how it is affecting people around the world.  They do a good job demonstrating the adverse effects of Facebook and social media and how most people would think Facebook and social media would bring the world closer together, yet they demonstrate through their experiment it does the opposite.

The team uses Figures for easier referencing as well as explains the does a good job of explaining their methods and procedures and results. Kross et al. even go as far as supplying alternative explanations for the results obtained as well, they discuss future research opportunities in this area.  “On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling such needs by allowing people to instantly connect. Rather than enhancing well-being, as frequent interactions with supportive “offline” social networks powerfully do, the current findings demonstrate that interacting with Facebook may predict the opposite result for young adults—it may undermine it”.

5.      Marche, S. (2012). Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?  The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/05/is-facebook-making-us-lonely/308930/

Stephan Marche uses this article to demonstrate that research is increasingly showing how all types of social media including, Facebook, Twitter, etc., are making societies lonelier, isolated as well as narcissistic, more so than ever before.  He also states that these social networks are making us both mentally and physically ill.

Marche paints a good picture of society’s new found loneliness and isolation by reminding us of the former Playboy playmate and B-movie star, Yvette Vickers who died in her home and yet no one noticed for a better part of a year before she was finally discovered by a neighbour.

6.     Olien, J. (2014). Loneliness Can Kill You. Don’t Let It. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 23 November 2014, from http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2013/08/dangers_of_loneliness_social_isolation_is_deadlier_than_obesity.html

Jessica Olien discusses social isolation and direct effects it had on her and her life when she moved from New York City to Portland Oregon.  She discusses that feeling socially isolated and lonely causes serious health risks and even can cause premature death in the elderly in some cases.  Olien uses comparisons with social isolation and loneliness to obesity and smoking as well as other health related risks.

The author provides data and statistics indicating that loneliness has doubled, 40% of adults in two surveys indicated they were lonely, up 20% from the 1980’s.  She also touches on how social media plays a role in our lives and the effects it plays.

At the end of the article Olien informs the reader that because of the social isolation she experience, she moved back to NYC.

7.     Parigi, P., & Henson, W. (2014). Social Isolation in America. Annual Review of Sociology, 40(1), 153-171. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071312-145646

Parigi and Henson II do a good job demonstrating a measure for social isolation for contemporary society where opportunities for making connections with people are everywhere.  The authors use two perspectives, the first is that isolation as a negative outcome with regards to modernization and the second is that isolation has as positive returns.  Additionally, they discuss today’s social media craze.

8.     Renzetti, E. (2013). The Life of Solitude: A Loneliness Crisis is Looming. The Globe And Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/life-of-solitude-a-loneliness-crisis-is-looming/article15573187/?page=all

Elizabeth Renzetti does an excellent job demonstrating how different ethnic groups feel lonely after leaving their home countries and how their loneliness is contributing to isolation among various ethnic groups in Canada.

Renzetti interviews an Afghan woman who stated that she felt less lonely working and living in Afghanistan while bombs were going off around her as opposed to the isolation she now feels living in Vancouver, Canada.  The women, who is educated and works as a communications manager in Vancouver indicated to Renzetti that the toll of her loneliness is not strictly emotional.  She is tired, distracted and unable to concentrate.  She has lost interest in activities she once enjoyed and states she is “sad” most of the time.

Renzetti further discusses more psychological effects of loneliness and isolation and the continued and prolonged affects they have on people and how it affects our lives to not be engaged in social practices such as hugging, talking to people, getting out the house, etc.

9.     Smith, S. (2010). The SAGE handbook of social geographies. (pp. 389-408) Los Angeles: SAGE

Chapter 17: Fear and its others discusses various different aspects of fear and “others” that contribute to people’s fears.  One of the more interesting aspects of this chapter was the discussion relating to societies fear and how in order to keep the fear involving various forms of crime and other aspects out of their lives people are segregating themselves into communities in order provide the illusion of safety.  The author however, does a good job of demonstrating how this practice is in turn causing the opposite effect and how segregating oneself into gated communities and communities of ethnic origin people are merely isolating themselves that much more.

 

10.     Szalavitz, M. (2013). Social Isolation, Not Just Feeling Lonely, May Shorten Lives. Time. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/26/social-isolation-not-just-feeling-lonely-may-shorten-lives/

The author of this article, Maia Szalavitz talks about how there is a difference between feeling lonely and being isolated.  Additionally, how there are health risks associated with people who are socially isolated.

Szalavitz goes on to talk about a new study by Andrew Steptoe, at the University College of London, that suggests that being socially isolated may have a greater effect on risk of premature or early death.  Szalavitz discusses the study indicating the study followed 6,500 people over the age of 52 from 2004 to 2012.  The study showed that people who were more socially isolated are more likely to die during the study then those with the most active social lives.

The article goes on to discuss further aspects of the study including other ways in which loneliness may contribute to early risk of death.  Szalavitz concludes that the results have important implications for addressing those who are isolated and that the results suggest physically engaging people who are socially apart may do more for improving health and survival, “all it takes is a walk or a lunch or even a hug”.

 

References

Crocker, J. (2014). Writing an Annotated Bibliography. Writing.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 23 November 2014, from http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/annotated-bibliography

 

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